Figge-Fencl Quantitative Physicochemical Model
of Human Acid-Base Physiology
by James J. Figge, MD, MBA, FACP

Copyright 2003 - 2009 James J. Figge.
Updated 22 December, 2007; 28 December, 2008.
Updated version published 15 January, 2009 on
www.Acid-Base.org and www.Figge-Fencl.org.


Titration Curve of Human Serum Albumin as Predicted by the Figge-Fencl Quantitative Physicochemical Model

titration curve

Figure 1. Hypothetical titration curve (red curve) of human serum albumin at 37 degrees Celsius and ionic strength of approximately 0.15 over the pH range 2 to 12, as predicted by the Figge-Fencl quantitative physicochemical model. Experimental data cover the pH range of 6.85 to 7.94. Calcium concentration ranges from 1.6 to 2.5 mmol / L. Data points outside of the experimental range represent a model-generated extrapolation. Predicted charge displayed by albumin is given in Eq / mol albumin. The predicted isoelectric point is at pH = 5.48. The predicted titration curve is plotted along with independent experimental data points of Fogh-Andersen, Bjerrum and Siggaard-Andersen, Clinical Chemistry, 1993; 39: 48-52 (blue diamonds). [ Full text is available online ]. These experimental data points give the intrinsic charge carried by human albumin at 37 degrees C in the presence of physiologic concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. Note the close agreement between the titration curve predicted by the Figge-Fencl model and the independent experimental data points of of Fogh-Andersen and colleagues. The data points of Tanford, one of the earliest published titration curves of human albumin at 37.8 degrees Celsius, are also plotted (green triangles). The original Tanford data, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1950; 72: 441-451, have been adjusted using a molecular weight of 66,500 for albumin.


titration curve

Figure 2. Hypothetical titration curve (red curve) of human serum albumin at 37 degrees Celsius and ionic strength of approximately 0.15 over the pH range 5 to 9, as predicted by the Figge-Fencl quantitative physicochemical model. Experimental data cover the pH range of 6.85 to 7.94. Calcium concentration ranges from 1.6 to 2.5 mmol / L. Data points outside of the experimental range represent a model-generated extrapolation. Predicted charge displayed by albumin is given in Eq / mol albumin. The predicted isoelectric point is at pH = 5.48. The predicted titration curve is plotted along with independent experimental data points of Fogh-Andersen, Bjerrum and Siggaard-Andersen, Clinical Chemistry, 1993; 39: 48-52 (blue diamonds). [ Full text is available online ]. These experimental data points give the intrinsic charge carried by human albumin at 37 degrees C in the presence of physiologic concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2. Note the close agreement between the titration curve predicted by the Figge-Fencl model and the independent experimental data points of of Fogh-Andersen and colleagues. The data points of Tanford, one of the earliest published titration curves of human albumin at 37.8 degrees Celsius, are also plotted (green triangles). The original Tanford data, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1950; 72: 441-451, have been adjusted using a molecular weight of 66,500 for albumin.


Linear Regression Equation.

A least-squares linear regression fit to the Figge-Fencl quantitative physicochemical model over the pH range of 6.90 to 7.90 yields the following equation for the negative charge displayed by albumin:

[ ZAlbumin ] = -10 x [ Albumin ] x (0.1204 x pH - 0.625);

where [ ZAlbumin ] is in mEq / L and [Albumin] is in g / dL. Therefore, at pH 7.40, the charge contributed by 4.40 g / dL of albumin is approximately -11.7 mEq / L.

A least-squares fit to the Figge-Mydosh-Fencl model over the stated range of pH values yields the equation:

[ ZAlbumin ] = -10 x [ Albumin ] x (0.123 x pH - 0.631).


Reference Data Set

Intrinsic charge displayed by human serum albumin as a function of pH, as predicted by the Figge-Fencl quantitative physicochemical model and the Figge-Mydosh-Fencl model.

pH, Figge-Fencl model: ZAlbumin (mEq / g), ZAlbumin (Eq / mol), Figge-Mydosh-Fencl model: ZAlbumin (mEq / g), ZAlbumin (Eq / mol)

data 5.00, 0.11835754, 7.87077659, 0.03721449, 2.47476349
data 5.01, 0.11506778, 7.65200720, 0.03411625, 2.26873071
data 5.02, 0.11182411, 7.43630344, 0.03106731, 2.06597644
data 5.03, 0.10862577, 7.22361379, 0.02806693, 1.86645068
data 5.04, 0.10547198, 7.01388685, 0.02511434, 1.67010350
data 5.05, 0.10236198, 6.80707138, 0.02220880, 1.47688506
data 5.06, 0.09929498, 6.60311636, 0.01934956, 1.28674569
data 5.07, 0.09627024, 6.40197097, 0.01653588, 1.09963584
data 5.08, 0.09328699, 6.20358465, 0.01376701, 0.91550620
data 5.09, 0.09034447, 6.00790712, 0.01104222, 0.73430763
data 5.10, 0.08744193, 5.81488841, 0.00836077, 0.55599126
data 5.11, 0.08457863, 5.62447887, 0.00572193, 0.38050846
data 5.12, 0.08175382, 5.43662920, 0.00312498, 0.20781088
data 5.13, 0.07896677, 5.25129047, 0.00056918, 0.03785048
data 5.14, 0.07621675, 5.06841415, -0.00194617, -0.12942047
data 5.15, 0.07350304, 4.88795212, -0.00442179, -0.29404934
data 5.16, 0.07082491, 4.70985669, -0.00685839, -0.45608319
data 5.17, 0.06818166, 4.53408063, -0.00925667, -0.61556868
data 5.18, 0.06557259, 4.36057716, -0.01161732, -0.77255209
data 5.19, 0.06299699, 4.18929998, -0.01394104, -0.92707931
data 5.20, 0.06045418, 4.02020330, -0.01622851, -1.07919583
data 5.21, 0.05794349, 3.85324181, -0.01848040, -1.22894670
data 5.22, 0.05546422, 3.68837076, -0.02069739, -1.37637656
data 5.23, 0.05301573, 3.52554591, -0.02288014, -1.52152959
data 5.24, 0.05059735, 3.36472355, -0.02502932, -1.66444953
data 5.25, 0.04820843, 3.20586056, -0.02714556, -1.80517965
data 5.26, 0.04584834, 3.04891435, -0.02922952, -1.94376278
data 5.27, 0.04351643, 2.89384292, -0.03128182, -2.08024123
data 5.28, 0.04121210, 2.74060484, -0.03330311, -2.21465689
data 5.29, 0.03893473, 2.58915929, -0.03529400, -2.34705110
data 5.30, 0.03668370, 2.43946601, -0.03725511, -2.47746476
data 5.31, 0.03445843, 2.29148537, -0.03918704, -2.60593825
data 5.32, 0.03225832, 2.14517831, -0.04109040, -2.73251146
data 5.33, 0.03008280, 2.00050642, -0.04296577, -2.85722376
data 5.34, 0.02793131, 1.85743188, -0.04481374, -2.98011404
data 5.35, 0.02580327, 1.71591748, -0.04663490, -3.10122066
data 5.36, 0.02369815, 1.57592666, -0.04842980, -3.22058150
data 5.37, 0.02161539, 1.43742344, -0.05019901, -3.33823388
data 5.38, 0.01955447, 1.30037250, -0.05194308, -3.45421466
data 5.39, 0.01751487, 1.16473913, -0.05366256, -3.56856016
data 5.40, 0.01549608, 1.03048924, -0.05535799, -3.68130618
data 5.41, 0.01349758, 0.89758938, -0.05702990, -3.79248803
data 5.42, 0.01151890, 0.76600672, -0.05867880, -3.90214049
data 5.43, 0.00955953, 0.63570905, -0.06030523, -4.01029784
data 5.44, 0.00761902, 0.50666478, -0.06190968, -4.11699385
data 5.45, 0.00569689, 0.37884297, -0.06349266, -4.22226178
data 5.46, 0.00379268, 0.25221326, -0.06505465, -4.32613438
data 5.47, 0.00190595, 0.12674593, -0.06659615, -4.42864390
data 5.48, 0.00003627, 0.00241189, -0.06811763, -4.52982208
data 5.49, -0.00181680, -0.12081737, -0.06961955, -4.62970018
data 5.50, -0.00365368, -0.24296973, -0.07110239, -4.72830894
data 5.51, -0.00547477, -0.36407248, -0.07256660, -4.82567864
data 5.52, -0.00728049, -0.48415230, -0.07401262, -4.92183904
data 5.53, -0.00907121, -0.60323528, -0.07544089, -5.01681943
data 5.54, -0.01084732, -0.72134691, -0.07685186, -5.11064862
data 5.55, -0.01260920, -0.83851212, -0.07824594, -5.20335493
data 5.56, -0.01435722, -0.95475524, -0.07962355, -5.29496622
data 5.57, -0.01609173, -1.07010004, -0.08098511, -5.38550988
data 5.58, -0.01781308, -1.18456972, -0.08233102, -5.47501283
data 5.59, -0.01952161, -1.29818692, -0.08366168, -5.56350152
data 5.60, -0.02121765, -1.41097373, -0.08497747, -5.65100199
data 5.61, -0.02290153, -1.52295170, -0.08627879, -5.73753977
data 5.62, -0.02457356, -1.63414185, -0.08756601, -5.82313999
data 5.63, -0.02623405, -1.74456465, -0.08883951, -5.90782733
data 5.64, -0.02788331, -1.85424008, -0.09009964, -5.99162603
data 5.65, -0.02952162, -1.96318759, -0.09134677, -6.07455990
data 5.66, -0.03114927, -2.07142614, -0.09258124, -6.15665234
data 5.67, -0.03276653, -2.17897418, -0.09380340, -6.23792632
data 5.68, -0.03437368, -2.28584971, -0.09501360, -6.31840442
data 5.69, -0.03597098, -2.39207023, -0.09621216, -6.39810879
data 5.70, -0.03755869, -2.49765278, -0.09739942, -6.47706119
data 5.71, -0.03913705, -2.60261397, -0.09857568, -6.55528299
data 5.72, -0.04070631, -2.70696993, -0.09974128, -6.63279518
data 5.73, -0.04226671, -2.81073641, -0.10089652, -6.70961836
data 5.74, -0.04381848, -2.91392868, -0.10204170, -6.78577275
data 5.75, -0.04536183, -3.01656166, -0.10317712, -6.86127822
data 5.76, -0.04689699, -3.11864983, -0.10430307, -6.93615425
data 5.77, -0.04842417, -3.22020730, -0.10541985, -7.01041998
data 5.78, -0.04994358, -3.32124780, -0.10652773, -7.08409421
data 5.79, -0.05145541, -3.42178471, -0.10762700, -7.15719539
data 5.80, -0.05295987, -3.52183104, -0.10871792, -7.22974161
data 5.81, -0.05445713, -3.62139946, -0.10980076, -7.30175066
data 5.82, -0.05594740, -3.72050234, -0.11087579, -7.37323998
data 5.83, -0.05743085, -3.81915169, -0.11194326, -7.44422672
data 5.84, -0.05890766, -3.91735926, -0.11300342, -7.51472769
data 5.85, -0.06037799, -4.01513647, -0.11405653, -7.58475940
data 5.86, -0.06184202, -4.11249448, -0.11510283, -7.65433806
data 5.87, -0.06329991, -4.20944419, -0.11614255, -7.72347960
data 5.88, -0.06475182, -4.30599622, -0.11717593, -7.79219963
data 5.89, -0.06619791, -4.40216096, -0.11820321, -7.86051352
data 5.90, -0.06763832, -4.49794857, -0.11922461, -7.92843632
data 5.91, -0.06907322, -4.59336898, -0.12024034, -7.99598284
data 5.92, -0.07050274, -4.68843190, -0.12125064, -8.06316760
data 5.93, -0.07192702, -4.78314688, -0.12225571, -8.13000488
data 5.94, -0.07334621, -4.87752324, -0.12325577, -8.19650869
data 5.95, -0.07476045, -4.97157016, -0.12425102, -8.26269281
data 5.96, -0.07616987, -5.06529662, -0.12524167, -8.32857075
data 5.97, -0.07757461, -5.15871148, -0.12622791, -8.39415581
data 5.98, -0.07897479, -5.25182344, -0.12720994, -8.45946104
data 5.99, -0.08037054, -5.34464107, -0.12818796, -8.52449926
data 6.00, -0.08176200, -5.43717281, -0.12916215, -8.58928306
data 6.01, -0.08314928, -5.52942699, -0.13013270, -8.65382484
data 6.02, -0.08453251, -5.62141185, -0.13109980, -8.71813676
data 6.03, -0.08591181, -5.71313552, -0.13206362, -8.78223078
data 6.04, -0.08728731, -5.80460604, -0.13302434, -8.84611864
data 6.05, -0.08865912, -5.89583140, -0.13398213, -8.90981190
data 6.06, -0.09002736, -5.98681948, -0.13493717, -8.97332192
data 6.07, -0.09139215, -6.07757813, -0.13588962, -9.03665985
data 6.08, -0.09275361, -6.16811514, -0.13683965, -9.09983667
data 6.09, -0.09411185, -6.25843824, -0.13778742, -9.16286317
data 6.10, -0.09546699, -6.34855513, -0.13873308, -9.22574993
data 6.11, -0.09681915, -6.43847347, -0.13967680, -9.28850741
data 6.12, -0.09816843, -6.52820090, -0.14061873, -9.35114583
data 6.13, -0.09951496, -6.61774501, -0.14155903, -9.41367529
data 6.14, -0.10085885, -6.70711340, -0.14249783, -9.47610569
data 6.15, -0.10220020, -6.79631363, -0.14343529, -9.53844678
data 6.16, -0.10353915, -6.88535327, -0.14437155, -9.60070813
data 6.17, -0.10487579, -6.97423985, -0.14530675, -9.66289916
data 6.18, -0.10621024, -7.06298093, -0.14624104, -9.72502914
data 6.19, -0.10754262, -7.15158404, -0.14717454, -9.78710716
data 6.20, -0.10887303, -7.24005671, -0.14810740, -9.84914217
data 6.21, -0.11020160, -7.32840647, -0.14903974, -9.91114298
data 6.22, -0.11152843, -7.41664084, -0.14997170, -9.97311822
data 6.23, -0.11285364, -7.50476735, -0.15090340, -10.03507639
data 6.24, -0.11417735, -7.59279351, -0.15183498, -10.09702585
data 6.25, -0.11549965, -7.68072684, -0.15276654, -10.15897478
data 6.26, -0.11682067, -7.76857484, -0.15369821, -10.22093126
data 6.27, -0.11814053, -7.85634500, -0.15463012, -10.28290320
data 6.28, -0.11945932, -7.94404481, -0.15556238, -10.34489835
data 6.29, -0.12077717, -8.03168172, -0.15649510, -10.40692436
data 6.30, -0.12209418, -8.11926318, -0.15742840, -10.46898872
data 6.31, -0.12341048, -8.20679660, -0.15836239, -10.53109876
data 6.32, -0.12472616, -8.29428936, -0.15929717, -10.59326169
data 6.33, -0.12604134, -8.38174879, -0.16023285, -10.65548457
data 6.34, -0.12735612, -8.46918220, -0.16116954, -10.71777434
data 6.35, -0.12867063, -8.55659683, -0.16210733, -10.78013778
data 6.36, -0.12998496, -8.64399985, -0.16304634, -10.84258152
data 6.37, -0.13129922, -8.73139838, -0.16398665, -10.90511208
data 6.38, -0.13261353, -8.81879944, -0.16492836, -10.96773583
data 6.39, -0.13392797, -8.90620999, -0.16587156, -11.03045897
data 6.40, -0.13524266, -8.99363686, -0.16681635, -11.09328760
data 6.41, -0.13655770, -9.08108681, -0.16776282, -11.15622764
data 6.42, -0.13787318, -9.16856644, -0.16871105, -11.21928491
data 6.43, -0.13918921, -9.25608225, -0.16966113, -11.28246506
data 6.44, -0.14050587, -9.34364058, -0.17061314, -11.34577358
data 6.45, -0.14182327, -9.43124763, -0.17156716, -11.40921585
data 6.46, -0.14314150, -9.51890943, -0.17252326, -11.47279709
data 6.47, -0.14446063, -9.60663183, -0.17348154, -11.53652237
data 6.48, -0.14578076, -9.69442048, -0.17444205, -11.60039660
data 6.49, -0.14710197, -9.78228085, -0.17540488, -11.66442457
data 6.50, -0.14842433, -9.87021817, -0.17637009, -11.72861090
data 6.51, -0.14974793, -9.95823746, -0.17733775, -11.79296007
data 6.52, -0.15107283, -10.04634347, -0.17830792, -11.85747639
data 6.53, -0.15239911, -10.13454072, -0.17928066, -11.92216403
data 6.54, -0.15372682, -10.22283345, -0.18025605, -11.98702701
data 6.55, -0.15505602, -10.31122561, -0.18123412, -12.05206919
data 6.56, -0.15638678, -10.39972087, -0.18221495, -12.11729426
data 6.57, -0.15771914, -10.48832258, -0.18319858, -12.18270577
data 6.58, -0.15905314, -10.57703377, -0.18418507, -12.24830710
data 6.59, -0.16038883, -10.66585716, -0.18517446, -12.31410148
data 6.60, -0.16172624, -10.75479509, -0.18616680, -12.38009197
data 6.61, -0.16306541, -10.84384957, -0.18716213, -12.44628147
data 6.62, -0.16440635, -10.93302225, -0.18816049, -12.51267272
data 6.63, -0.16574909, -11.02231437, -0.18916193, -12.57926829
data 6.64, -0.16709364, -11.11172683, -0.19016648, -12.64607060
data 6.65, -0.16844000, -11.20126011, -0.19117416, -12.71308189
data 6.66, -0.16978818, -11.29091429, -0.19218503, -12.78030424
data 6.67, -0.17113818, -11.38068905, -0.19319909, -12.84773957
data 6.68, -0.17248998, -11.47058367, -0.19421639, -12.91538962
data 6.69, -0.17384356, -11.56059698, -0.19523693, -12.98325598
data 6.70, -0.17519891, -11.65072741, -0.19626075, -13.05134006
data 6.71, -0.17655598, -11.74097298, -0.19728787, -13.11964311
data 6.72, -0.17791476, -11.83133124, -0.19831829, -13.18816623
data 6.73, -0.17927518, -11.92179935, -0.19935203, -13.25691032
data 6.74, -0.18063720, -12.01237403, -0.20038911, -13.32587614
data 6.75, -0.18200078, -12.10305158, -0.20142954, -13.39506428
data 6.76, -0.18336583, -12.19382787, -0.20247331, -13.46447518
data 6.77, -0.18473231, -12.28469838, -0.20352044, -13.53410910
data 6.78, -0.18610012, -12.37565814, -0.20457092, -13.60396614
data 6.79, -0.18746920, -12.46670180, -0.20562476, -13.67404625
data 6.80, -0.18883945, -12.55782361, -0.20668194, -13.74434923
data 6.81, -0.19021079, -12.64901744, -0.20774248, -13.81487471
data 6.82, -0.19158311, -12.74027678, -0.20880635, -13.88562217
data 6.83, -0.19295631, -12.83159474, -0.20987355, -13.95659095
data 6.84, -0.19433029, -12.92296412, -0.21094406, -14.02778024
data 6.85, -0.19570492, -13.01437735, -0.21201788, -14.09918908
data 6.86, -0.19708010, -13.10582654, -0.21309498, -14.17081638
data 6.87, -0.19845569, -13.19730353, -0.21417535, -14.24266090
data 6.88, -0.19983158, -13.28879983, -0.21525897, -14.31472127
data 6.89, -0.20120762, -13.38030672, -0.21634580, -14.38699601
data 6.90, -0.20258369, -13.47181522, -0.21743584, -14.45948348
data 6.91, -0.20395964, -13.56331610, -0.21852905, -14.53218196
data 6.92, -0.20533534, -13.65479997, -0.21962541, -14.60508957
data 6.93, -0.20671063, -13.74625720, -0.22072488, -14.67820437
data 6.94, -0.20808538, -13.83767806, -0.22182743, -14.75152428
data 6.95, -0.20945944, -13.92905262, -0.22293304, -14.82504713
data 6.96, -0.21083264, -14.02037086, -0.22404166, -14.89877067
data 6.97, -0.21220485, -14.11162268, -0.22515327, -14.97269255
data 6.98, -0.21357591, -14.20279788, -0.22626782, -15.04681034
data 6.99, -0.21494566, -14.29388623, -0.22738529, -15.12112155
data 7.00, -0.21631395, -14.38487748, -0.22850562, -15.19562361
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